Journal Articles

Dear Authors!

Business & Social Sciences Journal (BSSJ) is an open-access bi-annual journal published by Research Excellence Institute (REI). BSSJ invites research papers on various research themes relevant to business and social sciences. The journal is interested in publishing research papers that provides sound and clear theoretical insights with practical implications for the business and societal wellbeing. BSSJ calls for papers on any business or social science topic that challenges the traditional wisdom of the readers. The topics may include a wide range of research areas, for examples, management, marketing, finance, economics, banking, accounting, human resources management, international business, tourism management, entrepreneurship development, business ethics, international relations, development studies, political science, education, journalism and mass communication, corporate governance, information management, public administration, psychology, sociology, women studies, religious studies and social welfare, and any other area that can fall under the scope of social science discipline. Postgraduate students are encouraged to make their submissions too.

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Who We Are

Business and Social Science Journal (BSSJ) is an open access, peer-reviewed, and refereed journal published by Research Excellence Institute, South Africa. Business & Social Sciences Journal (BSSJ) aims at promoting an interdisciplinary approach by covering a large range of merging ideas from business and social sciences. The objective of BSSJ is to become a leading African Journal that provides an intellectual platform for scholars worldwide to share knowledge.

We help researchers to get credit for their creative work by publishing their manuscripts. We also timely help them refine their work by providing them with comments and suggestions of expert reviewers before each and every publication.


Tentative Publication Date:

The Research Excellence Institute intends to publish online the selected Research papers by 20 December 2017.


Important Notes for Authors (Full Paper Submission)  

Paper Formatting Guidelines Important Papers that do not follow the guidelines as specified below may be returned to authors for reformatting. We also request that you proofread your paper carefully to ensure that it is free of technical errors in usage, punctuation, etc. Some authors may wish to consider having their papers checked for consistency of English language usage before submission. 

Paper size:  A4


Line spacing:  Single spacing

Margins:   Top – 2.54cm    Bottom – 2.54cm    Left – 2.54cm    Right – 2.54cm 

Please do not include headers/ footers or number the pages.  

Word Limit:  Abstract – 300. Words Body of Paper (EXCLUDING references) – 5000 to 6000 Words 

Please use the format below for the formatting of the entire paper.


FULL PAPER TITLE [TIMES NEW ROMAN 16 PT, UPPER CASE, BOLD, CENTRED] First name, Surname1 and First name Surname 2 



An abstract of no more than 300 words should be provided. It should be in running prose with no sub-headings.


The section heading is applied to the header of the Abstract, Introduction, Literature Review, Methods, Findings, Conclusion, and References. 

Sub Heading 1st Level [TIMES NEW ROMAN 12 pt, Title Case, Bold, Italic, Flush Left] Subheading 2nd level [Arial 12 pt, Sentence case, Bold, Italic, Flush left]

Text [Normal – TIMES NEW ROMAN 12 pt, Justify]  



References should be used in the text and listed alphabetically by author at the end of the text using the following examples (APA format): 

Book with Single Author:

Gore, A. (2006). An inconvenient truth: The planetary emergency of global warming and what we can do about it. Emmaus, PA: Rodale.

In-text reference: (Gore, 2006)


Book with Two Authors:

Michaels, P. J., & Balling, R. C., Jr. (2000). The satanic gases: Clearing the air about global warming. Washington, DC: Cato Institute.

In-text reference: (Michaels & Balling, 2000)


Book with Editor as Author:

Galley. K. E. (Ed.). (2004). Global climate change and wildlife in North America. Bethesda, MD: Wildlife Society.

In-text reference: (Galley, 2004)


Brochure or Pamphlet:

New York State Department of Health. (2002). After a sexual assault. [Brochure]. Albany, NY: Author.

In-text reference: (New York, 2002)


An Anonymous Book:

Environmental resource handbook. (2001). Millerton, NY: Grey House.

In-text reference: (Environmental Resource Handbook, 2001)


Articles in Reference Books (unsigned and signed):

Greenhouse effect. (2005). American heritage science dictionary. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Schneider, S. H. (2000). Greenhouse effect. World book encyclopedia (Millennium ed. Vol. 8, pp. 382-383). Chicago, IL: World Book.

In-text references: (Greenhouse effect, 2005)

(Schneider, 2000)


Magazine Articles:

Allen, L. (2004, August). Will Tuvalu disappear beneath the sea? Global warming threatens to swamp a small island nation. Smithsonian, 35(5), 44-52.

Begley, S., & Murr, A. (2007, July 2). Which of these is not causing global warming? A. Sport utility vehicles; B. Rice fields; C. Increased solar output. Newsweek, 150(2), 48-50.

In-text references: (Allen, 2004)

(Begley, 2007)


Newspaper Articles (unsigned and signed):

College officials agree to cut greenhouse gases. (2007, June 13). Albany Times Union, p. A4.

Landler, M. (2007, June 2). Bush’s Greenhouse Gas Plan Throws Europe Off Guard.

New York Times, p. A7.

In-text references: (“College Officials”, 2007)

(Landler, 2007)


Journal Article with Continuous Paging:

Miller-Rushing, A. J., Primack, R. B., Primack, D., & Mukunda, S. (2006). Photographs and herbarium specimens as tools to document phonological changes in response to global warming. American Journal of Botany, 93, 1667-1674.

In-text reference: (Miller-Rushing, Primack, Primack, & Mukunda, 2006)

Journal Article when each issue begins with p.1:

Bogdonoff, S., & Rubin, J. (2007). The regional greenhouse gas initiative: Taking action in Maine. Environment, 49(2), 9-16.

In-text reference: (Bogdonoff & Rubin, 2007)


Journal Article from a Library Subscription Service Database with a DOI (digital object identifier):

Mora, C., & Maya, M. F. (2006). Effect of the rate of temperature increase of the dynamic method on the heat tolerance of fishes. Journal of Thermal Biology, 31, 337-341. doi: 10.101b/jtherbio.2006.01.055

In-text reference: (Mora & Maya, 2006)



United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2007, May 4). Climate Change. Retrieved From the Environmental Protection Agency website:

In-text reference: (United States Environmental, 2007)

Gelspan, R. (2007). The Heat Is Online. Lake Oswego, OR: Green House Network. Retrieved from The Heat Is Online website:

In-text reference: (Gelspan, 2007)


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